Posts tagged home care

Seizures and Epilepsy in Pets

There are few things more frightening than witnessing your cat or dog having a full-blown seizure—falling down, paddling with its paws, maybe even barking or yowling. Seizures are the result of an abnormal burst of electrical signals from the brain. Possible causes include toxic substances, electrolyte imbalances or abnormalities, head trauma, or metabolic conditions such as diabetes or thyroid disease. The uncoordinated firing of neurons in the brain creates seizures (convulsions). These range from a few moments of mental “absence” where the animal seems not to be aware of its surroundings, to severe “grand mal” with unconsciousness, stiffened limbs or flailing movements, and uncontrolled urination and/or defecation.

Stages of Seizures

The typical seizure has four stages; not all of these may be noticeable in any particular animal:

1. The prodromal phase may precede the seizure by hours or days. It is characterized by changes in mood or behavior.

2. The aura is the start of a seizure. Signals include whining, trembling, salivation, clingy behavior, restlessness, hiding.

3. The “ictus” or actual seizure. Mild seizures may involve “fly-biting” (where the dog will snap its teeth in the air) or lack of awareness. At its worst, the animal will lose consciousness and fall, going into a periods of intense physical activity lasting a few minutes. Multiple separate seizures in a row are called “cluster” seizures. More than 3 seizures in a 24-hour period, or any seizure lasting more than 10 minutes (called “status epilepticus”), are life-threatening conditions; seek emergency veterinary care.

4. The post-ictal period follows the seizure. The animal will regain consciousness, and return to normal over a few minutes or hours; meantime they may appear disoriented, blind, and/and deaf, and eat or drink excessively.

Causes of Seizures

In younger animals, seizures are sometimes caused by abnormal blood supply to the liver (shunt). Infectious causes are also seen more commonly in young animals. Blood tests including titers for tick-borne diseases (for pets who go outside in tick-endemic areas) as well as other infectious causes are advised. Several infectious organisms can be carried in raw meat, so seizures in a young animal on a raw diet should be fully investigated for such diseases.

In cats, infectious causes include Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Cryptococcus (a common environmental fungus that is especially associated with pigeons), Toxoplasma (a protozoal parasite), feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV or feline AIDS), meningitis or encephalitis).

In dogs, infectious causes include fungus (Cryptococcus, Asperigillus), parasitic (Toxoplasma, Neospora, Cuterebra), viral (canine distemper, rabies), and bacteria (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and other tick-borne diseases). Most often, no cause is found, and the diagnosis is “idiopathic epilepsy,” meaning “epilepsy due to unknown cause.”

In older animals (dogs over 5 years old; over age 10 for cats), tumors become a more common cause, but strokes also occur. A CT scan or MRI may be able to locate the mass; there may be a surgical solution, or radiation may be helpful.

Medical Treatment

In both dogs and cats, the most common treatment for seizures is phenobarbital tablets (given by mouth). It takes about 2 weeks to reach a blood level that will control seizures. At that point, the blood level of the drug should be checked. Phenobarbital can be harmful to the liver. Liver function and drug levels should be rechecked at least every 6 months. Cats are more resistant than dogs to the drug’s side effects, which include sedation and increased hunger and thirst. There are other medications that can be used in dogs; but few of them work well in cats.

Natural Treatments

Natural therapies for seizures in both dogs and cats include:

1. High-protein, very low-carb diet. Homemade meat-based foods, low-carb/grainless canned foods, and frozen raw diets are all good options for seizure patients. In humans, this type of diet is called “ketogenic” and it is quite successful, especially in children. Dogs and cats are built to eat just this type of diet. Carbohydrates, including treats, should be avoided. Note that some parasites of raw meat can cause neurologic problems; it may be best to cook all meat products before feeding.

2. Taurine. This amino acid is crucial for nerve and brain function. It is very safe and cannot be overdosed. Give approximately 125 mg per day per 50 pounds. Products containing a sufficient amount of taurine include:

Pet Naturals of Vermont Natural Cat Daily

Pet Naturals of Vermont Dog Daily Senior

Only Natural Pet Super Daily Canine Senior

3. B-vitamins. Vitamins B3 (niacin) and B6 (pyridoxine) seem to be the most important ones, but a general B-complex could be used. A balanced 50 mg B-complex (often called “B-50”) made for humans will contain enough of both for pets. Because B-vitamins are water soluble, they are generally safe.

4. Boswellia. This herb, usually used for joint pain, has provided good results in studies on some human brain tumors. Give 100-150 mg per day per 10 pounds.

Genesis Resources Canine Pain Plus Formula

Genesis Resources Feline Pain Plus Formula

Only Natural Pet Lubri-Ease

5. Omega-3 fatty acids. Anti-inflammatory Omega-3s are also vital to brain and nervous system function.

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5 New Year’s Resolutions Your Pet Wants You To Make

As 2008 wraps up and we’re thinking about our goals for the New Year, our pets have a few reminders for you! Here are the top 5 New Year’s resolutions your pet wants you to make!

1. Spend more quality time with me! As much as your dog or cat loves sitting with you while you work or relax, a 10-minute walk or play session provides many benefits. It’s mentally and physically stimulating, which ultimately means less boredom and frustration—and thus a calmer and healthier pet.

The amount of exercise and stimulation your dog needs depends on age, breed, temperament, weight, and social factors. For example, a young border collie needs a great deal of exercise that engages its mind, such as dog agility training or long-distance fetching games; while a middle-aged pug may be fine with a short daily walk. If you have two dogs who rough-house all day, a leisurely evening walk may be just what they need. Consider the history of your dog’s breed to understand more about its temperament and exercise needs. Your dog’s energy level and weight will give you an overall picture of whether its exercise regimen is adequate.

Even cats need exercise, despite their reputation for sleeping 18 hours a day! Interactive play sessions with fishing-pole type toys like “Da Bird” not only provide exercise, but also deepen your cat’s bond with you—and it’s fun! Perhaps most importantly, play sessions will satisfy those strong hunter instincts to create a more serene, more confident cat. This is especially important in a multi-cat home with an unbalanced hierarchy; the lowest cat on the totem pole will be much more comfortable in “hunting territory” where interactive games take place. If you have a young, energetic cat, consider cat agility training.

2. Feed me right! Good nutrition is the heart of good health and long life. You want your pet to not only survive, but thrive—so consider adding canned, raw, or homemade food. Cats in particular need more high-protein, high-moisture diets for optimal health; but dogs also benefit from less-processed foods.

Appropriate supplements are a part of good nutrition. While pets eating a balanced commercial food don’t need much in the way of added vitamins and minerals, giving extra Omega-3 fatty acids, digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics), and immune support (antioxidants) will provide big benefits that will help your pet live a longer, healthier life.

a. Omega-3 fatty acids (healthy anti-inflammatory oils). Omega-3s are precursors to many important hormones and other compounds in the body. In dogs and cats, they’re especially important for skin and coat health. Lack of a healthy balance of essential fatty acids is linked to many serious health conditions, such as allergies, skin diseases, obesity, cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, autoimmune diseases, behavioral issues, and cognitive dysfunction (senility). These The best forms for pets are fish oil and cod liver oil. If you can only give your pet one supplement, make it Omega 3s.

b. Digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics). In nature, our pets’ relatives catch and eat their food raw. We can mimic the benefits of the wild diet by adding digestive enzymes to our pets’ food. Probiotics—friendly bacteria—help the natural bacterial population in the gut stay balanced and healthy, and prevent prevent pathogenic bacteria from making our pets sick.

c. Immune support (antioxidants). The immune system is large and complex, and in our modern world, is constantly under attack from all sides—indoor and outdoor air pollutants, chemicals in fabrics and household products, electromagnetic radiation, and airborne viruses, molds, and toxins. Antioxidants, which help the body detoxify itself and prevent damaging inflammation, are a great way to boost the immune system. A combination of antioxidants is much more effective than any single one.

3. Give me appropriate veterinary care! Dogs and cats need annual veterinary check-ups. Regular care from the veterinarian is important to detect and correct  problems early and to maintain good dental health; but take it easy on the vaccines. Most adult animals do not need any vaccines except rabies as required by law. See our article on Vaccinations for more information.

4. Help me look and feel good! Adequate grooming involves maintaining a clean, healthy coat, claws, ears, eyes, claws, and teeth.

a. Bathing. Cats rarely need a bath, but dogs are attracted to (and like to roll in) things that smell good to them—but not so good to us! Also, that “doggy” odor can become unpleasant without regular shampoos (diet also has a great deal to do with development of this odor).
Pet-Safe Shampoos

b. Brushing/combing. Most pets learn to enjoy grooming if they’re introduced to it slowly and in a pleasurable way. It should never be a battle! Combs dig deeper than brushes, which tend to gloss over the top coat. Another great tool is the FURminator, which pulls out amazing amounts of dead hair; but it needs to be used gently, otherwise the feeling can become unpleasant.
Gripsoft Grooming Tools

c. Nail trimming. Your vet or groomer can do this every few weeks if you have a particularly uncooperative pet, but if you start trimming your puppy or kitten early in life and take care not to hurt them, most pets will accept claw clipping or filing at home. Very active dogs may wear their nails down naturally, but it pays to be vigilant. Over-long claws are uncomfortable to walk on and can actually grow around into the pad, causing horrific wounds.

Gripsoft Grooming Tools

d. Ears, eyes, and teeth. Keeping the ears and eyes clean and healthy is an essential part of good grooming and maintenance. Any cat or dog can develop waxy buildup in the ears, although floppy-eared dogs still take the prize for ear issues. Nearly every pet has some degree of dental disease by the age of 3; and while your veterinarian plays the most important role in assessing and preventing dental disease, there are products that can help keep your pet’s mouth healthy between check-ups. Prevention is key, because these sensitive organs can be easily damaged and expensive to restore to health.

Ear Care Products

Eye Care Products

Dental Care Products

5. Keep the bugs away from me! In many areas of the country, fleas are a year-round problem. Other parasites, including intestinal worms, heartworms, and disease-carrying ticks, are also a threat. A healthy diet and good hygiene are the first-line deterrents, but discuss parasite prevention with your vet so you know what the particular issues are in your area. And don’t forget to do your homework if you’re traveling, since parasite seasons and distributions vary widely in different areas. Anti-parasitic medications can be strong and potentially harmful; discuss alternative treatments with your vet.

For Fleas

For Other Parasites

Here’s hoping that you and your pets have a great holiday season and a wonderful 2009!

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Emergency Pet Care – Lily’s Bee Sting

By Sarah Wadleigh LilyLily

One of my favorite books is The Encyclopedia of Natural Pet Care by CJ Puotinen.   I keep one copy on my desk at work, and another at home.  This book brings together a wealth of information from many holistic healthcare experts on many subjects. It’s a compendium of natural treatments and emergency first-aid strategies, as well as some wonderful dietary information and explanations of how various energetic treatments work.  It’s a great book!  Get yourself a copy!

That said, a few weeks ago, I found out just how valuable this book really is.   We were installing a new garden in our back yard  Both our dogs were outside, and had been chasing the bees that buzz around the flowers in an already-existing garden.  As the dogs ran by, I noticed that our puppy’s muzzle looked a little swollen.  On closer examination, her lip was quite swollen – she had obviously been stung by a bee.

As it happens, Lily, our 11 month old Corgi, is immune-impaired due to a rare congenital condition called a dermoid cyst.  She has had numerous and fairly serious health issues in her young life, and we keep a very close eye on her.

When I saw the swelling, I realized she was having a strong reaction to the sting, and worried that she might go into shock.  Her eyes were becoming unfocused, and the swelling was rapidly progressing up the side of her face toward her eye.  Her muzzle, in a matter of seconds, became so swollen that I couldn’t get my finger under her lip to look for a stinger!

Realizing that I needed to take immediate action, I referred to my Encyclopedia of Natural Pet Care and looked up “Bites and Stings”.   The first remedy listed was “herbal therapy.”   Instructions were to place mashed or pureed greens on the sting, or in the absence of fresh greens, powdered greens/herbs.

Honestly, I have never used such a remedy, even though I’m all about eating greens.  I had a certain degree of doubt as to whether this type of remedy would work, and I had brief visions of a pending emergency room visit.  I had to try something immediately, though, so I cast my fate to the wind and mixed about a tablespoon of Dr. Harvey’s MultiVitamin, Mineral and Herbal Supplement with ½ teaspoon of nutritional clay and probably 1 teaspoon of lavender hydrosol.

My husband was assisting and helping me remain calm.  We put Lily on a towel on the couch, and I took a plastic knife and used it as a trowel to spread the mixture across her lip and the side of her face.  At first, I tried to pack some of it under her lip, but she ended up licking and swallowing it, so I focused on getting the rest on the outside of her muzzle and face.  She was very cooperative, and once the greens were spread across her face, fell into a deep sleep as I held a piece of gauze over the poultice. 

For 25 minutes, she slept deeply, and I watched as the swelling gradually, but steadily went down and down.  I had a hard time believing that it was actually working, and even asked my husband if he could detect a reduction in swelling.  He was skeptical, too, and said he thought it still looked pretty swollen.

I was getting concerned about her deep sleep, wondering if she might be falling into unconsciousness.  I shook her gently, and she woke up and acted like nothing had ever happened. (Looking back, I think the Lavender hydrosol helped her relax and fall asleep.)  The swelling was completely gone within 40 minutes!  And all because of some powdered greens!  My faith in herbal medicine is once again renewed, and I have promised myself that I will always consult my Encyclopedia and my other holistic books whenever I have an emergency or question about a health issue.

Being informed about all treatment options is very empowering, so I encourage all of you to develop your own holistic pet care library!  And I leave you with this question…  If greens can do this from the outside, what are they doing on the inside when you eat them?

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