Helping the Liver with Milk Thistle

The liver is the body’s main detoxifying organ; milk thistle can help the liver heal and regenerate.

Recently we talked about seizure disorders; as mentioned, one cause of seizures in dogs is liver disease. This is usually seen in young dogs with a congenital malformation of the blood vessels inthe liver (shunt), but it can also occur in adult dogs as a result of injury, infection, or toxic exposure.

The liver is the body’s major organ of detoxification, and it works primarily on things we and our pets eat. All blood leaving the digestive tract passes through the liver before entering the main circulation. This unusual route allows the liver to filter, remove, and metabolize potentially toxic substances. Many pharmaceuticals take advantage of this by delivering drugs in a form that will survive the acidity of the stomach and be metabolized into an active form in the liver.

Many drugs, however, put a major burden on the liver, including prednisone and similar steroids, and–ironically–the primary drugs used to treat seizures.

The other unusual trait of the liver is its regenerative powers. For most organs and major body parts, once they’re injured or removed, that’s the end of the story. Healing–when even possible–consists mainly of scar tissue formation. However, the liver has an amazing ability to regenerate itself. In humans, even as little as 20% of the liver can be transplanted yet still provide the patient with normal liver function. That’s why it pays such big dividends to keep the liver healthy! One way to do that is with the herb Milk Thistle.

What It Is

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a flowering plant in the Aster family. A native of Europe, it has been used since the time of the Roman empire as a liver tonic. It grows wild in many parts of the world, including the Pacific Northwest area of the U.S., where it is considered an invasive weed.

Milk thistle is one of very few herbs widely accepted by conventional science to have significant medicinal value. Today we know the active ingredient of milk thistle seed extract as a flavonoid compound called “silymarin.”  Silymarin, which is itself a combination of several other active compounds, has been extensively studied around the world, and has been shown to be safe and effective in treating a variety of liver diseases and other conditions. It specifically protects the liver against toxins (including some molds such as aflatoxin, drugs, and heavy metals), activates protein synthesis, and stimulates growth of new liver cells to replace those that are dead or damaged. Milk thistle also has strong antioxidant (destroys oxygen free radicals) and anti-inflammatory actions.

What It Does

Silymarin reaches high levels in the bile and liver (it also reaches significant levels in the lungs, pancreas, prostate, and skin). It can be used in the treatment of hepatic lipidosis (a common disease in cats), chronic hepatitis, cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts), and pericholangitis (inflammation of the tissue around the bile ducts). It may be useful in preventing or treating gallstones by thinning the bile. Many cats and dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also have inflammation of the liver, bile system, and/or pancreas, and would benefit from supplementation with milk thistle.

Milk thistle can be used as an aid to healing after drug therapy, vaccinations, and infections such as feline distemper or canine parvovirus, as well as a  cancer. It may also help prevent diabetic neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes that causes degeneration of the nerves controlling the hind limbs.

Milk thistle also supports the immune system through its powerful antioxidant, free-radical scavenging action, its ability to preserve the supply of another important antioxidant, glutathione, as well as direct effects on immune cells. Glutathione, which is stored primarily in the liver, naturally declines over time, and depletion of this protein appears to accelerate the aging process.

While it’s not exactly the fountain of youth, milk thistle clearly has wide-ranging positive effects throughout the body. However, before you add this potent herb to your pet’s daily regimen “just in case” it might do some good, herbalists believe milk thistle is best reserved as a treatment for existing disease, rather than being used by itself in a healthy animal.

How to Use

The standard dosage of milk thistle extract is based on a silymarin content of around 80 percent; most supplements contain anywhere from 50-500 milligrams (175 mg is typical). As with many supplements, it’s probably better to buy a milk thistle derivative rather than a silymarin-only or other fractional supplement, since there may be other compounds found in the whole herb that significantly enhance the effects of what science has decided is the main player.

Because of its excellent safety record and lack of adverse drug interactions, when treating a very sick animal with advanced liver disease, up to 200 mg per 10 pounds of body weight of milk thistle extract may be needed. For most purposes, however, one-third to one-half of that dose is more than adequate.

Animals with liver disease may not have much appetite, but it’s easy to open up a capsule, mix the appropriate amount of powdered herb with a little blenderized food or baby food, and feed by syringe. Too high a dose can cause an upset tummy, gas, or mild diarrhea; just give less if this occurs.

Human research studies have shown that it is more effective to administer this herb in three or four small portions over the day than in one large daily dose. A simple dosing schedule of morning, after work, and bedtime works very well. We have several excellent milk thistle products available.

Food Allergies in Pets

Food intolerances and allergies can make your pet miserable. Find out the best foods and treatments for allergic pets in this article.

Pets can develop “food allergies” or “food intolerances” to ingredients found in commercial cat food. What’s the difference? Food intolerance, which is much more common, is an adverse reaction to something in the food, such as dyes, preservatives, texturizers, or other additives. Food intolerances typically produce digestive symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea. A true food allergy is due to an immune system reaction called “hypersensitivity.” In particular, it is a Type I “immediate” hypersensitivity reaction in which the immune system makes antibodies to the allergen (allergy-causing substance).

The symptoms of food allergy are typically either skin-related, although occasionally digestive symptoms are seen.

  • Skin symptoms include rashes (particularly around the face and ears), excessive licking (typically paws, legs or tummy), and inflamed, itchy ears. Secondary yeast and bacterial infections are common and must also be treated.
  • Digestive symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea. These are similar to the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, which may itself be triggered by a food allergy.

Cats are more likely to develop true allergies to foods than are dogs. Only about 10% of dogs with skin and ear symptoms are food-allergic, but food allergies may account for as many as 50% of cats with the same symptoms.

The top allergens in pets are: beef (often referred to as “meat by-products” or “meat and bone meal” on pet food labels), dairy products, chicken (may be labeled as “poultry”), fish, wheat, eggs, corn, and soy. These allergens are, not coincidentally, the most common ingredients in pet foods.

An allergy can develop to any protein to which the pet is repeatedly or constantly exposed. Feeding the same food for years on end is the best way to create a food allergy. This is why we recommend varying the brands and flavors you feed your pet.

Conventional Treatment

The first step in any suspected food intolerance or allergy is a “hypoallergenic” diet trial. These diet trials use “novel” ingredients that are not commonly found in pet food. Novel protein sources include kangaroo, emu, venison, rabbit, and duck. Novel carbohydrate sources include green peas, potatoes, and barley. Lamb and rice used to be novel, but since the introduction of lamb and rice foods years ago, many animals have (predictably) become allergic to those, too. The prescription-type diets (using green peas and novel meat sources) are available from some veterinarians. OTC choices include Nature’s Variety Prairie (lamb, duck, rabbit and venison), EVO 95% meat varieties, and Merrick Thanksgiving Day Dinner (turkey).

A diet trial lasts 8-12 weeks (it takes a long time to resolve skin symptoms) and must include only the test food; no treats, no exceptions. Just one diet slip (such as giving a treat containing chicken) could invalidate the entire trial, make your pet miserable, and force you to start the entire trial over from the beginning.

The main drug treatment for food allergy is steroids (also called “corticosteroids” and “glucocorticoids” to distinguish them from the anabolic steroids that bodybuilders and athletes sometimes use), hyposensitization, and diet therapy.

Steroids can be given by long-lasting injection (“Depo-Medrol” or other injectable cortisone) or by mouth in the form of a tablet. The two most common oral steroids are prednisone and prednisolone. Prednisone is hard for cats to metabolize and must be converted to prednisolone in the liver before it will work. Therefore, it is simpler and less stressful to give prednisolone itself.

The primary action of steroids is to suppress the immune system, so that the inflammatory reaction to the allergen does not occur. However, steroids have many dangerous side effects, including diabetes and ulceration in the digestive tract. Dogs are much more sensitive to the effects of steroids than cats; steriods should be used with extreme caution in all pets. Pets receiving steroids should not be vaccinated because the steroid prevents the immune system from responding to the vaccine.

Hyposensitization is another potential treatment, but is used more in dogs than cats. It requires knowing precisely what the pet is allergic to. This is best accomplished with a skin test done under anesthesia. The skin test is considered the “gold standard”; but there is also a blood test for allergies (sometimes called a “Rast” test). While both work well in dogs, they are not accurate for cats. Once the allergens are determined, each substance is diluted; they are then mixed together and injected. The tiny amount used tells the immune system that the substances are not harmful and it doesn’t need to over-react.

Holistic Treatment

Holistic treatments for food allergies include:

1. Homemade, or raw diets using fresh, whole food ingredients. Even though a dog or cat is allergic to a protein in commercial pet food, that same protein, fed fresh, may not be problematic. That’s because heat-processing of canned and dry foods can alter the natural proteins, creating abnormal shapes that trigger an immune reaction. If possible, when starting out, it’s best to use a novel protein source to allow time for the immune system to calm down and the gut to heal. Once symptoms resolve, you can re-introduce other ingredients one by one to test for reaction. If using a commercially prepared food (including raw or dehydrated diets and all supplements), always read the ingredients. Some products claim to be low-allergen but still contain chicken, fish, or other likely allergy suspects.

2. Natural anti-inflammatories. Antioxidants and Omega-3 fatty acids have good anti-inflammatory action; Omega-3s are also beneficial for skin healing. Fish and cod liver oils are the best source of Omega 3s for pets, and high-quality distilled oils should not contain any fish proteins; but if your pet is allergic to fish and reacts to a fish oil product, you may want to substitute flaxseed oil. Always read the label to make sure that there are no potential allergens used as a flavoring or base. Safe, excellent-quality products include:

Inflamazyme

Pure Essentials for Mature Dogs

VetriScience Antiox

Genesis Resources Feline Antioxidant Formula

Nordic Naturals Omega-3 Pet and Cod Liver Oil

3. Digestive support: Enzymes and Probiotics

Giving digestive enzymes with food helps the gut break particles down and reduces the chance that allergenic proteins will remain intact long enough to provoke an immune response. Probiotics help protect the intestinal tract and promote a healthy bacterial population, which may reduce inflammation. Here are some convenient, safe products:

Pet Naturals Digestive Support for Dogs and Cats (contains enzymes and probiotics)

Animal Essentials Plant Enzymes and Probiotics

It should also be noted that even in pets who are not specifically allergic to something in the food (such as dogs with atopy, or cats with asthma) still often do better with a hypoallergenic diet. It seems that the fewer allergens the immune system has to deal with, the less chance it will over-react.

Seizures and Epilepsy in Pets

Seizures in pets are terrifying, but in most cases, natural treatment can make big difference!

There are few things more frightening than witnessing your cat or dog having a full-blown seizure—falling down, paddling with its paws, maybe even barking or yowling. Seizures are the result of an abnormal burst of electrical signals from the brain. Possible causes include toxic substances, electrolyte imbalances or abnormalities, head trauma, or metabolic conditions such as diabetes or thyroid disease. The uncoordinated firing of neurons in the brain creates seizures (convulsions). These range from a few moments of mental “absence” where the animal seems not to be aware of its surroundings, to severe “grand mal” with unconsciousness, stiffened limbs or flailing movements, and uncontrolled urination and/or defecation.

Stages of Seizures

The typical seizure has four stages; not all of these may be noticeable in any particular animal:

1. The prodromal phase may precede the seizure by hours or days. It is characterized by changes in mood or behavior.

2. The aura is the start of a seizure. Signals include whining, trembling, salivation, clingy behavior, restlessness, hiding.

3. The “ictus” or actual seizure. Mild seizures may involve “fly-biting” (where the dog will snap its teeth in the air) or lack of awareness. At its worst, the animal will lose consciousness and fall, going into a periods of intense physical activity lasting a few minutes. Multiple separate seizures in a row are called “cluster” seizures. More than 3 seizures in a 24-hour period, or any seizure lasting more than 10 minutes (called “status epilepticus”), are life-threatening conditions; seek emergency veterinary care.

4. The post-ictal period follows the seizure. The animal will regain consciousness, and return to normal over a few minutes or hours; meantime they may appear disoriented, blind, and/and deaf, and eat or drink excessively.

Causes of Seizures

In younger animals, seizures are sometimes caused by abnormal blood supply to the liver (shunt). Infectious causes are also seen more commonly in young animals. Blood tests including titers for tick-borne diseases (for pets who go outside in tick-endemic areas) as well as other infectious causes are advised. Several infectious organisms can be carried in raw meat, so seizures in a young animal on a raw diet should be fully investigated for such diseases.

In cats, infectious causes include Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Cryptococcus (a common environmental fungus that is especially associated with pigeons), Toxoplasma (a protozoal parasite), feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV or feline AIDS), meningitis or encephalitis).

In dogs, infectious causes include fungus (Cryptococcus, Asperigillus), parasitic (Toxoplasma, Neospora, Cuterebra), viral (canine distemper, rabies), and bacteria (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and other tick-borne diseases). Most often, no cause is found, and the diagnosis is “idiopathic epilepsy,” meaning “epilepsy due to unknown cause.”

In older animals (dogs over 5 years old; over age 10 for cats), tumors become a more common cause, but strokes also occur. A CT scan or MRI may be able to locate the mass; there may be a surgical solution, or radiation may be helpful.

Medical Treatment

In both dogs and cats, the most common treatment for seizures is phenobarbital tablets (given by mouth). It takes about 2 weeks to reach a blood level that will control seizures. At that point, the blood level of the drug should be checked. Phenobarbital can be harmful to the liver. Liver function and drug levels should be rechecked at least every 6 months. Cats are more resistant than dogs to the drug’s side effects, which include sedation and increased hunger and thirst. There are other medications that can be used in dogs; but few of them work well in cats.

Natural Treatments

Natural therapies for seizures in both dogs and cats include:

1. High-protein, very low-carb diet. Homemade meat-based foods, low-carb/grainless canned foods, and frozen raw diets are all good options for seizure patients. In humans, this type of diet is called “ketogenic” and it is quite successful, especially in children. Dogs and cats are built to eat just this type of diet. Carbohydrates, including treats, should be avoided. Note that some parasites of raw meat can cause neurologic problems; it may be best to cook all meat products before feeding.

2. Taurine. This amino acid is crucial for nerve and brain function. It is very safe and cannot be overdosed. Give approximately 125 mg per day per 50 pounds. Products containing a sufficient amount of taurine include:

Pet Naturals of Vermont Natural Cat Daily

Pet Naturals of Vermont Dog Daily Senior

Only Natural Pet Super Daily Canine Senior

3. B-vitamins. Vitamins B3 (niacin) and B6 (pyridoxine) seem to be the most important ones, but a general B-complex could be used. A balanced 50 mg B-complex (often called “B-50”) made for humans will contain enough of both for pets. Because B-vitamins are water soluble, they are generally safe.

4. Boswellia. This herb, usually used for joint pain, has provided good results in studies on some human brain tumors. Give 100-150 mg per day per 10 pounds.

Genesis Resources Canine Pain Plus Formula

Genesis Resources Feline Pain Plus Formula

Only Natural Pet Lubri-Ease

5. Omega-3 fatty acids. Anti-inflammatory Omega-3s are also vital to brain and nervous system function.

5 New Year’s Resolutions Your Pet Wants You To Make

Are you and your pet ready for the happiest, healthiest New Year ever? We’ve got some resolutions for you!

As 2008 wraps up and we’re thinking about our goals for the New Year, our pets have a few reminders for you! Here are the top 5 New Year’s resolutions your pet wants you to make!

1. Spend more quality time with me! As much as your dog or cat loves sitting with you while you work or relax, a 10-minute walk or play session provides many benefits. It’s mentally and physically stimulating, which ultimately means less boredom and frustration—and thus a calmer and healthier pet.

The amount of exercise and stimulation your dog needs depends on age, breed, temperament, weight, and social factors. For example, a young border collie needs a great deal of exercise that engages its mind, such as dog agility training or long-distance fetching games; while a middle-aged pug may be fine with a short daily walk. If you have two dogs who rough-house all day, a leisurely evening walk may be just what they need. Consider the history of your dog’s breed to understand more about its temperament and exercise needs. Your dog’s energy level and weight will give you an overall picture of whether its exercise regimen is adequate.

Even cats need exercise, despite their reputation for sleeping 18 hours a day! Interactive play sessions with fishing-pole type toys like “Da Bird” not only provide exercise, but also deepen your cat’s bond with you—and it’s fun! Perhaps most importantly, play sessions will satisfy those strong hunter instincts to create a more serene, more confident cat. This is especially important in a multi-cat home with an unbalanced hierarchy; the lowest cat on the totem pole will be much more comfortable in “hunting territory” where interactive games take place. If you have a young, energetic cat, consider cat agility training.

2. Feed me right! Good nutrition is the heart of good health and long life. You want your pet to not only survive, but thrive—so consider adding canned, raw, or homemade food. Cats in particular need more high-protein, high-moisture diets for optimal health; but dogs also benefit from less-processed foods.

Appropriate supplements are a part of good nutrition. While pets eating a balanced commercial food don’t need much in the way of added vitamins and minerals, giving extra Omega-3 fatty acids, digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics), and immune support (antioxidants) will provide big benefits that will help your pet live a longer, healthier life.

a. Omega-3 fatty acids (healthy anti-inflammatory oils). Omega-3s are precursors to many important hormones and other compounds in the body. In dogs and cats, they’re especially important for skin and coat health. Lack of a healthy balance of essential fatty acids is linked to many serious health conditions, such as allergies, skin diseases, obesity, cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, autoimmune diseases, behavioral issues, and cognitive dysfunction (senility). These The best forms for pets are fish oil and cod liver oil. If you can only give your pet one supplement, make it Omega 3s.

b. Digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics). In nature, our pets’ relatives catch and eat their food raw. We can mimic the benefits of the wild diet by adding digestive enzymes to our pets’ food. Probiotics—friendly bacteria—help the natural bacterial population in the gut stay balanced and healthy, and prevent prevent pathogenic bacteria from making our pets sick.

c. Immune support (antioxidants). The immune system is large and complex, and in our modern world, is constantly under attack from all sides—indoor and outdoor air pollutants, chemicals in fabrics and household products, electromagnetic radiation, and airborne viruses, molds, and toxins. Antioxidants, which help the body detoxify itself and prevent damaging inflammation, are a great way to boost the immune system. A combination of antioxidants is much more effective than any single one.

3. Give me appropriate veterinary care! Dogs and cats need annual veterinary check-ups. Regular care from the veterinarian is important to detect and correct  problems early and to maintain good dental health; but take it easy on the vaccines. Most adult animals do not need any vaccines except rabies as required by law. See our article on Vaccinations for more information.

4. Help me look and feel good! Adequate grooming involves maintaining a clean, healthy coat, claws, ears, eyes, claws, and teeth.

a. Bathing. Cats rarely need a bath, but dogs are attracted to (and like to roll in) things that smell good to them—but not so good to us! Also, that “doggy” odor can become unpleasant without regular shampoos (diet also has a great deal to do with development of this odor).
Pet-Safe Shampoos

b. Brushing/combing. Most pets learn to enjoy grooming if they’re introduced to it slowly and in a pleasurable way. It should never be a battle! Combs dig deeper than brushes, which tend to gloss over the top coat. Another great tool is the FURminator, which pulls out amazing amounts of dead hair; but it needs to be used gently, otherwise the feeling can become unpleasant.
Gripsoft Grooming Tools

c. Nail trimming. Your vet or groomer can do this every few weeks if you have a particularly uncooperative pet, but if you start trimming your puppy or kitten early in life and take care not to hurt them, most pets will accept claw clipping or filing at home. Very active dogs may wear their nails down naturally, but it pays to be vigilant. Over-long claws are uncomfortable to walk on and can actually grow around into the pad, causing horrific wounds.

Gripsoft Grooming Tools

d. Ears, eyes, and teeth. Keeping the ears and eyes clean and healthy is an essential part of good grooming and maintenance. Any cat or dog can develop waxy buildup in the ears, although floppy-eared dogs still take the prize for ear issues. Nearly every pet has some degree of dental disease by the age of 3; and while your veterinarian plays the most important role in assessing and preventing dental disease, there are products that can help keep your pet’s mouth healthy between check-ups. Prevention is key, because these sensitive organs can be easily damaged and expensive to restore to health.

Ear Care Products

Eye Care Products

Dental Care Products

5. Keep the bugs away from me! In many areas of the country, fleas are a year-round problem. Other parasites, including intestinal worms, heartworms, and disease-carrying ticks, are also a threat. A healthy diet and good hygiene are the first-line deterrents, but discuss parasite prevention with your vet so you know what the particular issues are in your area. And don’t forget to do your homework if you’re traveling, since parasite seasons and distributions vary widely in different areas. Anti-parasitic medications can be strong and potentially harmful; discuss alternative treatments with your vet.

For Fleas

For Other Parasites

Here’s hoping that you and your pets have a great holiday season and a wonderful 2009!

Photo Contest Winners – June 2008

Our winners for the Only Natural Pet Store photo contest – June 2008

Congratulations to Misha!
Misha is an eight year old Maine Coon from Wyoming. He’s a lover who greets his person when she comes home. His favorite game to play is Lump In the Bed, as pictured here. Misha was a feral cat who was “unadoptable” but his mom spent a lot of time with him and now he’s living the life!

Misha likes Wellness Cat Food and gets In Clover OptaGest with every meal to avoid being a “farty cat”. For a special treat, Misha gets Castor & Pollux Organix Cat Treats.  

& Congratulations to Dirty Harry!
Dirty Harry is a four year old Maine Coon mix from Massachusetts. He loves spending time in his window overlooking the yard, playing and eating. Dirty Harry was adopted by his person just before entering the shelter and brings limitless joy to her life.

Dirty Harry also enjoys Wellness Cat Food and he gets an Only Natural Pet Super Daily with his meals. He also gets Triple Pet Plaque Off to help him have healthy teeth.

Top 10 Summer Safety Tips for Pets

“The heat is on,” and with it comes a number of special summertime problems for our pets. Common sense and preventive measures can prevent untold illness and injuries for our pets. Here are our Top 10 tips for a safe and happy summer:

1. Prevent Parasites. Fleas, ticks, and other parasites are a year-round problem in some areas, but in the summer they are just about everywhere. Not only are these pests a nuisance to your dog or cat, but they are carriers of disease and other parasites. Mosquitoes, for instance, can transmit heartworms; fleas can give your pet tapeworms; and the list of tick-borne diseases is a long one. Thwarting parasites requires a broad approach and vigilance on your part, with a little help from effective preventives. Many natural products are available; talk to your vet about what’s needed for your area.

2. Stay Cool in Hot Weather. Pets are susceptible to heatstroke, so be sure your pet always has a shelter from the sun, and plenty of fresh water. If it’s extremely hot and humid in your area, consider a cooling vest for your dog.

3. Let Rover Stay Home. It’s been said before but bears repeating—never leave your dog in a car if the weather is warm, and certainly not if it’s hot. Cracking the windows makes no difference in the temperature gain. It doesn’t take high temperatures for it to be dangerous. A car parked in the shade can reach dangerous temperatures on a hot day, and if it’s in the sun, the temperature can rapidly rise up to 160°F. Experiments showed that even at a mild 72°F, the inside of a car reached 116°F in an hour, plenty hot to kill a dog. One dog died after being locked in a parked car on a sunny, 67°F day, even though the car windows were cracked.

Dogs can’t sweat—they control their body temperature by panting. If the air in the car is near or above the dog’s body temperature (about 100°F), the dog will be unable to cool itself, and its body temperature can quickly rise to fatal levels (over 107°F). Heatstroke symptoms in dogs include: heavy panting, salivation, disorientation, agitation, rapid heart beat, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, coma and death.

If you see a dog left alone in a car under dangerous conditions, note the car’s location, color, model, make, and license plate number and contact local humane authorities or police. If you can make a good guess as to which store the driver might be in, ask the store manager to page them. If the animal shows symptoms of heatstroke, take steps to gradually lower its body temperature immediately.
* Move the animal into the shade or an air-conditioned area.
* Apply ice packs or cold towels to the head, neck, and chest; or immerse her in cool (but not cold) water.
* Allow small amounts of cool water or let the dog lick some ice cubes.
* Get to a veterinarian as soon as possible.

4. Avoid Sunburn. Dogs and cats with white faces or ears may be susceptible to sunburn, even if they only “sun-bathe” indoors. Apply a non-toxic sunscreen to vulnerable areas where the fur is thin and you can see skin.

5. Watch What Goes In Your Pet’s Mouth. Poisonous mushrooms grow in many areas of the country. Patrol your property regularly to remove these fungal hazards. Many plants are also toxic. As a special note, this is the time of year when people are using fertilizers and pesticides in yards and on lawns. Don’t let your dog wander in other yards where chemicals might be used.

6. Take Care with Critters. With dogs accompanying their people walking and hiking in summer, there are increased chances of an encounter with unpleasant or even dangerous wildlife, such as skunks, porcupines, rattlesnakes and other reptiles. Certain large toads have poisons on their skin that can be harmful if your pet even licks at the toad. Toads come out in wet weather and when it’s dark, so be especially careful when letting your dog out at these times.

7. Stay Clear of Sharp Objects. As the grasses and other plants die back, their seed cases can present special hazards. Foxtails and burrs can get caught in the paws or fur and work their way into—or even through—the skin. Check your pet after every outing to make sure they’re free of these nasty items. If you live near water or take your dog on fishing trips, be watchful of fishing hooks and lines that you are using, or that may be left behind in shallow water or on the shore.

8. Travel Safely.
As much as your dog may love to ride in the bed of a pickup, or hang his head out the window, allowing either can cause your dog a world of hurt. Dust and gravel in the eyes are the least of it; every year thousands of dogs are injured or killed when they jump or fall from vehicles. Even in an enclosed car, animals can be thrown and injured if you have to brake suddenly. A sturdy harness is the equivalent of a good seatbelt for you!  And of course, if you’re a boater, don’t forget a flotation device for the dog!

9. Carry Identification. Of course, all pets should wear a collar and ID tag year-round. Cats should be outfitted with a breakaway collar for maximum safety. Have your pet microchipped for added “insurance.”

10. Be Prepared. At home or away, carry a first aid kit in case of emergencies. There are special kits for both dogs and cats, so you never have to panic! You might also want to keep flower essences on hand, to keep your pet calm while you give first aid or head for the vet. Several products are available:
Bach Rescue Remedy

SpiritEssence Stress Stopper

Pet Essences Emergency Rescue

Have Fun! Once you’re ready and alert for summer hazards, it’s the best and most fun time of year to get out—or just hang out—with your pet!

The “Catkins” Diet—For Dogs, Too?

After our look last time at vegetarianism in pets, this time we’re going to the other extreme—the high-protein, low-carb, so-called “Catkins” diet (a little wordplay on the low-carb Atkins diet for people). This is a far more prevalent trend in pet diets, and one that I’m glad to see—with a few reservations!

Looking at wild carnivores, it’s clear that what they mostly eat is other animals. Large canids like wolves, and often coyotes, hunt in packs and can dine on big game animals like deer, elk, or moose, while foxes scale it down. All big cats but lions are solitary hunters, and their prey are also proportional in size, although even a domestic cat is quite capable of bringing home an adult rabbit.

The carnivore’s diet has a few things in common across the spectrum of possible prey, which represents a sort of “ideal” we should be shooting for in feeding our pets.

• High protein (50% or more)
• High moisture (60-75%)
• High fat (30-40%)
• Low carbohydrate (less than 10%)

A rat, for instance, has about 55% protein, 38% fat, 9% carbohydrate, and 64% moisture (calculated on a dry matter basis). The “dry matter basis” is the only valid comparison of pet foods, particularly between dry and canned foods. The water is calculated out by subtracting the moisture percentage on the label from 100%, leaving total dry matter. Then you divide the ingredient of interest, for instance protein, by the total dry matter.

This sounds complicated, but if even a math moron like me can do it, you can too! (Hint: your cell phone probably has a built-in calculator!) It’s essential to master this concept in order to accurately compare pet foods. For example, a dry food containing 30% protein and 10% moisture contains 30/90 or 33% protein, while a canned food containing 10% protein and 78% water actually contains 45% protein. So even though the canned food label claims a lot less protein, it really contains much more than dry food.

Many canned foods, especially kitten and cat foods but also many dog foods, already fit our “high-protein” qualification and also contain 10% or less carbohydrates. (You can get a ballpark estimate of carbs by subtracting the other labeled ingredients, including moisture, protein, and fat, from 100%.)

Low Carb Canned Dog Foods

Low Carb Canned Cat Foods

There are quite a few “low-carb” or “grain-free” dry pet foods as well. Remember that “grain free” does not necessarily equal “low carb.” In most grain-free dry foods, cereal grains like corn and rice have been replaced by white potatoes, green peas, carrots, or other starchy vegetables, or by dairy products such as cottage cheese.

Now, there’s no doubt that grains are problematic for dogs and cats; corn-based dry foods in particular are much to blame for the current pet obesity epidemic. Getting away from grain-based foods is a great choice for many pets. It’s been proven many times over that the best and safest way to help a cat lose weight in by putting them on an all-wet, low-carb “Catkins” diet (which could be canned, raw, or homemade). Studies show that dogs lose fat and maintain lean muscle better on the same type of “Catkins” diet, but “Dogkins” just isn’t a very catchy title!

However, you still have to read labels and assess ingredients to make sure you’re getting just what you want in a pet food. Shoot for around 45% protein in a dry cat food, and at least 35% in a dry dog food (on a dry matter basis).

Be aware that high protein dry foods tend to be higher in fat as well, and should not be fed free choice (available 24/7). It is definitely best to feed these foods in timed meals, and make sure you do a gradual transition from the current diet (see previous posts on Switching Foods) to minimize tummy upset. Unlimited consumption of these foods will often result in weight gain, so don’t overfeed! Many of these foods now come in a “reduced calorie” formula, but it’s a lot easier to prevent weight gain in the first place!

High protein dry cat foods are also very dehydrating, and ideally should not be the sole diet. Do feed your cat at least 50% canned food for that important kidney-protecting moisture. While dogs will drink more to make up for the dehydrating effects of these diets, cats will not.

Several manufacturers have also come out with “100% meat” canned diets. Most (but not all) of them are not balanced with minerals and vitamins, and are intended for occasional use only—not as a sole diet for your pet. They are suitable as a basis for a homemade diet to which you add supplements such as Sojos.

Here are just a few examples of the many excellent low-carb products you can find at Only Natural Pet Store:

Wellness CORE Grain-Free Feline Diet

Innova EVO Dry Cat Food

Wellness CORE Original Grain-Free Canine Diet

Innova EVO Red Meat Dry Dog Food

Raw meat-based diets are usually high in protein and moisture, and low in carbs. Many cats and dogs do very well on these diets, but if you want to try raw food, make the switch slowly, and be very cautious if your pet has pre-existing medical conditions affecting the digestive tract and discuss it with your vet first.

When used correctly, low-carb diets work extremely well for weight loss in both dogs and cats. They help maintain healthy skin and coat, vibrant energy, and are far more appropriate for carnivores than mass-market pet foods that are loaded with corn and soy. There’s less yard and litterbox clean-up, too, because more of the food is digested and assimilated. At Only Natural Pet Store, we carry a wide variety of great-quality natural pet foods, but grain-free, low-carb and raw foods are among the most premier of products and will benefit your pet’s health in many ways!