Seizures and Epilepsy in Pets

There are few things more frightening than witnessing your cat or dog having a full-blown seizure—falling down, paddling with its paws, maybe even barking or yowling. Seizures are the result of an abnormal burst of electrical signals from the brain. Possible causes include toxic substances, electrolyte imbalances or abnormalities, head trauma, or metabolic conditions such as diabetes or thyroid disease. The uncoordinated firing of neurons in the brain creates seizures (convulsions). These range from a few moments of mental “absence” where the animal seems not to be aware of its surroundings, to severe “grand mal” with unconsciousness, stiffened limbs or flailing movements, and uncontrolled urination and/or defecation.

Stages of Seizures

The typical seizure has four stages; not all of these may be noticeable in any particular animal:

1. The prodromal phase may precede the seizure by hours or days. It is characterized by changes in mood or behavior.

2. The aura is the start of a seizure. Signals include whining, trembling, salivation, clingy behavior, restlessness, hiding.

3. The “ictus” or actual seizure. Mild seizures may involve “fly-biting” (where the dog will snap its teeth in the air) or lack of awareness. At its worst, the animal will lose consciousness and fall, going into a periods of intense physical activity lasting a few minutes. Multiple separate seizures in a row are called “cluster” seizures. More than 3 seizures in a 24-hour period, or any seizure lasting more than 10 minutes (called “status epilepticus”), are life-threatening conditions; seek emergency veterinary care.

4. The post-ictal period follows the seizure. The animal will regain consciousness, and return to normal over a few minutes or hours; meantime they may appear disoriented, blind, and/and deaf, and eat or drink excessively.

Causes of Seizures

In younger animals, seizures are sometimes caused by abnormal blood supply to the liver (shunt). Infectious causes are also seen more commonly in young animals. Blood tests including titers for tick-borne diseases (for pets who go outside in tick-endemic areas) as well as other infectious causes are advised. Several infectious organisms can be carried in raw meat, so seizures in a young animal on a raw diet should be fully investigated for such diseases.

In cats, infectious causes include Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), Cryptococcus (a common environmental fungus that is especially associated with pigeons), Toxoplasma (a protozoal parasite), feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV or feline AIDS), meningitis or encephalitis).

In dogs, infectious causes include fungus (Cryptococcus, Asperigillus), parasitic (Toxoplasma, Neospora, Cuterebra), viral (canine distemper, rabies), and bacteria (Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and other tick-borne diseases). Most often, no cause is found, and the diagnosis is “idiopathic epilepsy,” meaning “epilepsy due to unknown cause.”

In older animals (dogs over 5 years old; over age 10 for cats), tumors become a more common cause, but strokes also occur. A CT scan or MRI may be able to locate the mass; there may be a surgical solution, or radiation may be helpful.

Medical Treatment

In both dogs and cats, the most common treatment for seizures is phenobarbital tablets (given by mouth). It takes about 2 weeks to reach a blood level that will control seizures. At that point, the blood level of the drug should be checked. Phenobarbital can be harmful to the liver. Liver function and drug levels should be rechecked at least every 6 months. Cats are more resistant than dogs to the drug’s side effects, which include sedation and increased hunger and thirst. There are other medications that can be used in dogs; but few of them work well in cats.

Natural Treatments

Natural therapies for seizures in both dogs and cats include:

1. High-protein, very low-carb diet. Homemade meat-based foods, low-carb/grainless canned foods, and frozen raw diets are all good options for seizure patients. In humans, this type of diet is called “ketogenic” and it is quite successful, especially in children. Dogs and cats are built to eat just this type of diet. Carbohydrates, including treats, should be avoided. Note that some parasites of raw meat can cause neurologic problems; it may be best to cook all meat products before feeding.

2. Taurine. This amino acid is crucial for nerve and brain function. It is very safe and cannot be overdosed. Give approximately 125 mg per day per 50 pounds. Products containing a sufficient amount of taurine include:

Pet Naturals of Vermont Natural Cat Daily

Pet Naturals of Vermont Dog Daily Senior

Only Natural Pet Super Daily Canine Senior

3. B-vitamins. Vitamins B3 (niacin) and B6 (pyridoxine) seem to be the most important ones, but a general B-complex could be used. A balanced 50 mg B-complex (often called “B-50”) made for humans will contain enough of both for pets. Because B-vitamins are water soluble, they are generally safe.

4. Boswellia. This herb, usually used for joint pain, has provided good results in studies on some human brain tumors. Give 100-150 mg per day per 10 pounds.

Genesis Resources Canine Pain Plus Formula

Genesis Resources Feline Pain Plus Formula

Only Natural Pet Lubri-Ease

5. Omega-3 fatty acids. Anti-inflammatory Omega-3s are also vital to brain and nervous system function.

5 New Year’s Resolutions Your Pet Wants You To Make

As 2008 wraps up and we’re thinking about our goals for the New Year, our pets have a few reminders for you! Here are the top 5 New Year’s resolutions your pet wants you to make!

1. Spend more quality time with me! As much as your dog or cat loves sitting with you while you work or relax, a 10-minute walk or play session provides many benefits. It’s mentally and physically stimulating, which ultimately means less boredom and frustration—and thus a calmer and healthier pet.

The amount of exercise and stimulation your dog needs depends on age, breed, temperament, weight, and social factors. For example, a young border collie needs a great deal of exercise that engages its mind, such as dog agility training or long-distance fetching games; while a middle-aged pug may be fine with a short daily walk. If you have two dogs who rough-house all day, a leisurely evening walk may be just what they need. Consider the history of your dog’s breed to understand more about its temperament and exercise needs. Your dog’s energy level and weight will give you an overall picture of whether its exercise regimen is adequate.

Even cats need exercise, despite their reputation for sleeping 18 hours a day! Interactive play sessions with fishing-pole type toys like “Da Bird” not only provide exercise, but also deepen your cat’s bond with you—and it’s fun! Perhaps most importantly, play sessions will satisfy those strong hunter instincts to create a more serene, more confident cat. This is especially important in a multi-cat home with an unbalanced hierarchy; the lowest cat on the totem pole will be much more comfortable in “hunting territory” where interactive games take place. If you have a young, energetic cat, consider cat agility training.

2. Feed me right! Good nutrition is the heart of good health and long life. You want your pet to not only survive, but thrive—so consider adding canned, raw, or homemade food. Cats in particular need more high-protein, high-moisture diets for optimal health; but dogs also benefit from less-processed foods.

Appropriate supplements are a part of good nutrition. While pets eating a balanced commercial food don’t need much in the way of added vitamins and minerals, giving extra Omega-3 fatty acids, digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics), and immune support (antioxidants) will provide big benefits that will help your pet live a longer, healthier life.

a. Omega-3 fatty acids (healthy anti-inflammatory oils). Omega-3s are precursors to many important hormones and other compounds in the body. In dogs and cats, they’re especially important for skin and coat health. Lack of a healthy balance of essential fatty acids is linked to many serious health conditions, such as allergies, skin diseases, obesity, cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, autoimmune diseases, behavioral issues, and cognitive dysfunction (senility). These The best forms for pets are fish oil and cod liver oil. If you can only give your pet one supplement, make it Omega 3s.

b. Digestive support (digestive enzymes and probiotics). In nature, our pets’ relatives catch and eat their food raw. We can mimic the benefits of the wild diet by adding digestive enzymes to our pets’ food. Probiotics—friendly bacteria—help the natural bacterial population in the gut stay balanced and healthy, and prevent prevent pathogenic bacteria from making our pets sick.

c. Immune support (antioxidants). The immune system is large and complex, and in our modern world, is constantly under attack from all sides—indoor and outdoor air pollutants, chemicals in fabrics and household products, electromagnetic radiation, and airborne viruses, molds, and toxins. Antioxidants, which help the body detoxify itself and prevent damaging inflammation, are a great way to boost the immune system. A combination of antioxidants is much more effective than any single one.

3. Give me appropriate veterinary care! Dogs and cats need annual veterinary check-ups. Regular care from the veterinarian is important to detect and correct  problems early and to maintain good dental health; but take it easy on the vaccines. Most adult animals do not need any vaccines except rabies as required by law. See our article on Vaccinations for more information.

4. Help me look and feel good! Adequate grooming involves maintaining a clean, healthy coat, claws, ears, eyes, claws, and teeth.

a. Bathing. Cats rarely need a bath, but dogs are attracted to (and like to roll in) things that smell good to them—but not so good to us! Also, that “doggy” odor can become unpleasant without regular shampoos (diet also has a great deal to do with development of this odor).
Pet-Safe Shampoos

b. Brushing/combing. Most pets learn to enjoy grooming if they’re introduced to it slowly and in a pleasurable way. It should never be a battle! Combs dig deeper than brushes, which tend to gloss over the top coat. Another great tool is the FURminator, which pulls out amazing amounts of dead hair; but it needs to be used gently, otherwise the feeling can become unpleasant.
Gripsoft Grooming Tools

c. Nail trimming. Your vet or groomer can do this every few weeks if you have a particularly uncooperative pet, but if you start trimming your puppy or kitten early in life and take care not to hurt them, most pets will accept claw clipping or filing at home. Very active dogs may wear their nails down naturally, but it pays to be vigilant. Over-long claws are uncomfortable to walk on and can actually grow around into the pad, causing horrific wounds.

Gripsoft Grooming Tools

d. Ears, eyes, and teeth. Keeping the ears and eyes clean and healthy is an essential part of good grooming and maintenance. Any cat or dog can develop waxy buildup in the ears, although floppy-eared dogs still take the prize for ear issues. Nearly every pet has some degree of dental disease by the age of 3; and while your veterinarian plays the most important role in assessing and preventing dental disease, there are products that can help keep your pet’s mouth healthy between check-ups. Prevention is key, because these sensitive organs can be easily damaged and expensive to restore to health.

Ear Care Products

Eye Care Products

Dental Care Products

5. Keep the bugs away from me! In many areas of the country, fleas are a year-round problem. Other parasites, including intestinal worms, heartworms, and disease-carrying ticks, are also a threat. A healthy diet and good hygiene are the first-line deterrents, but discuss parasite prevention with your vet so you know what the particular issues are in your area. And don’t forget to do your homework if you’re traveling, since parasite seasons and distributions vary widely in different areas. Anti-parasitic medications can be strong and potentially harmful; discuss alternative treatments with your vet.

For Fleas

For Other Parasites

Here’s hoping that you and your pets have a great holiday season and a wonderful 2009!

Photo Contest Winners – June 2008

Our winners for the Only Natural Pet Store photo contest – June 2008

Congratulations to Misha!
Misha is an eight year old Maine Coon from Wyoming. He’s a lover who greets his person when she comes home. His favorite game to play is Lump In the Bed, as pictured here. Misha was a feral cat who was “unadoptable” but his mom spent a lot of time with him and now he’s living the life!

Misha likes Wellness Cat Food and gets In Clover OptaGest with every meal to avoid being a “farty cat”. For a special treat, Misha gets Castor & Pollux Organix Cat Treats.  

& Congratulations to Dirty Harry!
Dirty Harry is a four year old Maine Coon mix from Massachusetts. He loves spending time in his window overlooking the yard, playing and eating. Dirty Harry was adopted by his person just before entering the shelter and brings limitless joy to her life.

Dirty Harry also enjoys Wellness Cat Food and he gets an Only Natural Pet Super Daily with his meals. He also gets Triple Pet Plaque Off to help him have healthy teeth.

Top 10 Summer Safety Tips for Pets

“The heat is on,” and with it comes a number of special summertime problems for our pets. Common sense and preventive measures can prevent untold illness and injuries for our pets. Here are our Top 10 tips for a safe and happy summer:

1. Prevent Parasites. Fleas, ticks, and other parasites are a year-round problem in some areas, but in the summer they are just about everywhere. Not only are these pests a nuisance to your dog or cat, but they are carriers of disease and other parasites. Mosquitoes, for instance, can transmit heartworms; fleas can give your pet tapeworms; and the list of tick-borne diseases is a long one. Thwarting parasites requires a broad approach and vigilance on your part, with a little help from effective preventives. Many natural products are available; talk to your vet about what’s needed for your area.

2. Stay Cool in Hot Weather. Pets are susceptible to heatstroke, so be sure your pet always has a shelter from the sun, and plenty of fresh water. If it’s extremely hot and humid in your area, consider a cooling vest for your dog.

3. Let Rover Stay Home. It’s been said before but bears repeating—never leave your dog in a car if the weather is warm, and certainly not if it’s hot. Cracking the windows makes no difference in the temperature gain. It doesn’t take high temperatures for it to be dangerous. A car parked in the shade can reach dangerous temperatures on a hot day, and if it’s in the sun, the temperature can rapidly rise up to 160°F. Experiments showed that even at a mild 72°F, the inside of a car reached 116°F in an hour, plenty hot to kill a dog. One dog died after being locked in a parked car on a sunny, 67°F day, even though the car windows were cracked.

Dogs can’t sweat—they control their body temperature by panting. If the air in the car is near or above the dog’s body temperature (about 100°F), the dog will be unable to cool itself, and its body temperature can quickly rise to fatal levels (over 107°F). Heatstroke symptoms in dogs include: heavy panting, salivation, disorientation, agitation, rapid heart beat, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, coma and death.

If you see a dog left alone in a car under dangerous conditions, note the car’s location, color, model, make, and license plate number and contact local humane authorities or police. If you can make a good guess as to which store the driver might be in, ask the store manager to page them. If the animal shows symptoms of heatstroke, take steps to gradually lower its body temperature immediately.
* Move the animal into the shade or an air-conditioned area.
* Apply ice packs or cold towels to the head, neck, and chest; or immerse her in cool (but not cold) water.
* Allow small amounts of cool water or let the dog lick some ice cubes.
* Get to a veterinarian as soon as possible.

4. Avoid Sunburn. Dogs and cats with white faces or ears may be susceptible to sunburn, even if they only “sun-bathe” indoors. Apply a non-toxic sunscreen to vulnerable areas where the fur is thin and you can see skin.

5. Watch What Goes In Your Pet’s Mouth. Poisonous mushrooms grow in many areas of the country. Patrol your property regularly to remove these fungal hazards. Many plants are also toxic. As a special note, this is the time of year when people are using fertilizers and pesticides in yards and on lawns. Don’t let your dog wander in other yards where chemicals might be used.

6. Take Care with Critters. With dogs accompanying their people walking and hiking in summer, there are increased chances of an encounter with unpleasant or even dangerous wildlife, such as skunks, porcupines, rattlesnakes and other reptiles. Certain large toads have poisons on their skin that can be harmful if your pet even licks at the toad. Toads come out in wet weather and when it’s dark, so be especially careful when letting your dog out at these times.

7. Stay Clear of Sharp Objects. As the grasses and other plants die back, their seed cases can present special hazards. Foxtails and burrs can get caught in the paws or fur and work their way into—or even through—the skin. Check your pet after every outing to make sure they’re free of these nasty items. If you live near water or take your dog on fishing trips, be watchful of fishing hooks and lines that you are using, or that may be left behind in shallow water or on the shore.

8. Travel Safely.
As much as your dog may love to ride in the bed of a pickup, or hang his head out the window, allowing either can cause your dog a world of hurt. Dust and gravel in the eyes are the least of it; every year thousands of dogs are injured or killed when they jump or fall from vehicles. Even in an enclosed car, animals can be thrown and injured if you have to brake suddenly. A sturdy harness is the equivalent of a good seatbelt for you!  And of course, if you’re a boater, don’t forget a flotation device for the dog!

9. Carry Identification. Of course, all pets should wear a collar and ID tag year-round. Cats should be outfitted with a breakaway collar for maximum safety. Have your pet microchipped for added “insurance.”

10. Be Prepared. At home or away, carry a first aid kit in case of emergencies. There are special kits for both dogs and cats, so you never have to panic! You might also want to keep flower essences on hand, to keep your pet calm while you give first aid or head for the vet. Several products are available:
Bach Rescue Remedy

SpiritEssence Stress Stopper

Pet Essences Emergency Rescue

Have Fun! Once you’re ready and alert for summer hazards, it’s the best and most fun time of year to get out—or just hang out—with your pet!

The “Catkins” Diet—For Dogs, Too?

After our look last time at vegetarianism in pets, this time we’re going to the other extreme—the high-protein, low-carb, so-called “Catkins” diet (a little wordplay on the low-carb Atkins diet for people). This is a far more prevalent trend in pet diets, and one that I’m glad to see—with a few reservations!

Looking at wild carnivores, it’s clear that what they mostly eat is other animals. Large canids like wolves, and often coyotes, hunt in packs and can dine on big game animals like deer, elk, or moose, while foxes scale it down. All big cats but lions are solitary hunters, and their prey are also proportional in size, although even a domestic cat is quite capable of bringing home an adult rabbit.

The carnivore’s diet has a few things in common across the spectrum of possible prey, which represents a sort of “ideal” we should be shooting for in feeding our pets.

• High protein (50% or more)
• High moisture (60-75%)
• High fat (30-40%)
• Low carbohydrate (less than 10%)

A rat, for instance, has about 55% protein, 38% fat, 9% carbohydrate, and 64% moisture (calculated on a dry matter basis). The “dry matter basis” is the only valid comparison of pet foods, particularly between dry and canned foods. The water is calculated out by subtracting the moisture percentage on the label from 100%, leaving total dry matter. Then you divide the ingredient of interest, for instance protein, by the total dry matter.

This sounds complicated, but if even a math moron like me can do it, you can too! (Hint: your cell phone probably has a built-in calculator!) It’s essential to master this concept in order to accurately compare pet foods. For example, a dry food containing 30% protein and 10% moisture contains 30/90 or 33% protein, while a canned food containing 10% protein and 78% water actually contains 45% protein. So even though the canned food label claims a lot less protein, it really contains much more than dry food.

Many canned foods, especially kitten and cat foods but also many dog foods, already fit our “high-protein” qualification and also contain 10% or less carbohydrates. (You can get a ballpark estimate of carbs by subtracting the other labeled ingredients, including moisture, protein, and fat, from 100%.)

Low Carb Canned Dog Foods

Low Carb Canned Cat Foods

There are quite a few “low-carb” or “grain-free” dry pet foods as well. Remember that “grain free” does not necessarily equal “low carb.” In most grain-free dry foods, cereal grains like corn and rice have been replaced by white potatoes, green peas, carrots, or other starchy vegetables, or by dairy products such as cottage cheese.

Now, there’s no doubt that grains are problematic for dogs and cats; corn-based dry foods in particular are much to blame for the current pet obesity epidemic. Getting away from grain-based foods is a great choice for many pets. It’s been proven many times over that the best and safest way to help a cat lose weight in by putting them on an all-wet, low-carb “Catkins” diet (which could be canned, raw, or homemade). Studies show that dogs lose fat and maintain lean muscle better on the same type of “Catkins” diet, but “Dogkins” just isn’t a very catchy title!

However, you still have to read labels and assess ingredients to make sure you’re getting just what you want in a pet food. Shoot for around 45% protein in a dry cat food, and at least 35% in a dry dog food (on a dry matter basis).

Be aware that high protein dry foods tend to be higher in fat as well, and should not be fed free choice (available 24/7). It is definitely best to feed these foods in timed meals, and make sure you do a gradual transition from the current diet (see previous posts on Switching Foods) to minimize tummy upset. Unlimited consumption of these foods will often result in weight gain, so don’t overfeed! Many of these foods now come in a “reduced calorie” formula, but it’s a lot easier to prevent weight gain in the first place!

High protein dry cat foods are also very dehydrating, and ideally should not be the sole diet. Do feed your cat at least 50% canned food for that important kidney-protecting moisture. While dogs will drink more to make up for the dehydrating effects of these diets, cats will not.

Several manufacturers have also come out with “100% meat” canned diets. Most (but not all) of them are not balanced with minerals and vitamins, and are intended for occasional use only—not as a sole diet for your pet. They are suitable as a basis for a homemade diet to which you add supplements such as Sojos.

Here are just a few examples of the many excellent low-carb products you can find at Only Natural Pet Store:

Wellness CORE Grain-Free Feline Diet

Innova EVO Dry Cat Food

Wellness CORE Original Grain-Free Canine Diet

Innova EVO Red Meat Dry Dog Food

Raw meat-based diets are usually high in protein and moisture, and low in carbs. Many cats and dogs do very well on these diets, but if you want to try raw food, make the switch slowly, and be very cautious if your pet has pre-existing medical conditions affecting the digestive tract and discuss it with your vet first.

When used correctly, low-carb diets work extremely well for weight loss in both dogs and cats. They help maintain healthy skin and coat, vibrant energy, and are far more appropriate for carnivores than mass-market pet foods that are loaded with corn and soy. There’s less yard and litterbox clean-up, too, because more of the food is digested and assimilated. At Only Natural Pet Store, we carry a wide variety of great-quality natural pet foods, but grain-free, low-carb and raw foods are among the most premier of products and will benefit your pet’s health in many ways!

The Importance of Taurine for Dogs and Cats

Back in the 1970s, thousands of dogs and cats were mysteriously dying due to a form of heart failure called dilated cardiomyopathy. At the same time, there were reports of cats going blind that were often associated with cats being fed dog food. But within a few years, the same problems were discovered in cats eating a “premium” cat food sold by veterinarians. Finally, in the late 1980s, the problem, in cats at least, was traced to the deficiency of a basic amino acid called taurine.

There are 22 amino acids, the basic building blocks of protein. Animals can manufacture many of them in their liver, but some must be obtained in the diet—these are called “essential.” In humans and dogs, taurine is not essential, but it turned out that in cats, it is. Taurine is found primarily in muscle meat, and is completely absent in cereal grains. The lack of taurine in the diet caused serious eye and heart diseases to develop.

But what happened to the cat food? Thousands of cats had been eating the same “complete and balanced” cat food since it came on the market in the 1960s, so why should they suddenly start dying a decade later?

The answer lies in a part of the history of pet food that the big manufacturers don’t want you to know.

Before WWII, more than 90% of commercial pet food came in cans, and contained mostly meat. However, metal was needed for the military, and by the time the war ended, 85% of pet food was dry kibble. It still contained a good amount of meat, and this is what prevented taurine deficiencies from occurring.

The primary machinery for producing what is familiar to us today as dry food is called an extruder; it was introduced in the 1950s. However, to get the right crunchy texture, the recipe called for a higher proportion of starch. This started the trend of ever-increasing quantities of cereal grain, such as corn, in dry foods. At the same time, meat processors were getting more proficient at getting more meat from livestock carcasses. Less meat was available (and what was available was getting more expensive), so pet food makers substituted other animal tissues leftover from slaughter, officially called “by-products.” Over time, the result was a high-grain, low-meat dry food, for which the profit margin was—conveniently—much higher than for canned food.

Unfortunately, cats were about to pay for the pet food companies’ profits with their lives. With virtually no muscle meat in even the premium dry foods of that period, cats eating that food were missing crucial taurine, and suffered the consequences of corporate greed as sickness, blindness, and death.

When studies fingering taurine deficiency as the cause of these ailments were published, pet food manufacturers hastened to supplement taurine in their diets. Curiously, because bacteria in the cat’s digestive system evidently prefer canned food to dry, they needed to put three times more taurine in canned food than dry. The problem disappeared, and everyone lived happily ever after…or did they?

Because dogs make their own taurine from other amino acids, it’s been thought that they didn’t need such supplements. But in the last few years, researchers have discovered that a few dogs evidently can’t supply their own taurine needs; at least not on a diet of cereal grains and by-products. Certain lines of spaniels, retrievers, and particularly Newfoundlands developed the same form of heart disease that was killing cats. Now, this disease is actually pretty common among dogs of all breeds, but what was interesting about these particular dogs was that supplementing taurine could reverse their heart disease. As it turned out, many of these dogs were eating lamb and rice dog foods. Lamb meat has a relatively low level of taurine compared to chicken, the most common pet food protein. (Beef, venison, and rabbit are also much lower in taurine than poultry.) Consequently, a few pet food makers have started to supplement taurine in some (but not all) their dry dog foods.

However, the basic reason remains the same for dogs as cats: there isn’t enough real meat in the food to sustain a meat-eating predator like a dog or cat. The vast majority of dry pet foods out there contain little or no real meat, but instead use cheaper substitutes like grain proteins (corn gluten, wheat gluten, soy protein), and by-products such as meat and bone meal.

Here at Only Natural Pet Store, we stock only the best natural pet foods. You won’t find any low-end foods full of by-products here, so you can be confident that your pet is getting the best nutrition available. Shop now for your dog or cat!

While all processed cat foods and some dog foods are supplemented with taurine, in some cases more might actually be better. Taurine is a helpful and valuable supplement for pets with liver disease, seizure disorders, and Type I diabetes (the most common form in dogs). Here are some products that contain extra taurine:

Only Natural Pet Super Daily Canine Senior

Only Natural Super Daily Feline Vitamins

Missing Link Feline Formula

Pet Naturals of Vermont Natural Cat Daily

The Power of Positive Speech

By Dave Goff

People talk to their plants all the time. It is generally accepted that talking to plants assists in the growth and well-being of the plants and can even be therapeutic for the plant care-taker as well. Less well known are the studies that show that what you say is just as important as saying anything at all. Positive reinforcements deliver even better results than general non-committal talking.

Why am I talking about plants? Take a moment and think about the animals around you, and how your speech affects them as well. Animals are very sensitive to sound, tone and stance when people are speaking around them and will often alter their behavior in response.

I would even take this a step further. I actually use the way I speak to my pets as a supplemental therapy. For example, my cat Goliath has always been afraid of my other cats and when he is on my lap I will say things like “Big healthy Goliath, he is so brave and gets along so well with Whirley.” Over time, this has slowly become a reality; Goliath will now face up to Whirley and stand his ground. He is still afraid and more time is needed but the situation is definitely improving.

The most important things to keep in mind are consistency, focus, positive statements and present tense.

  • If you want your message to have an effect, repeat it often and combine it with positive reinforcement; petting, brushing giving treats, etc… This will associate good feelings with the message you are trying to convey. Repetition and consistency in message are key here.
  • Keep your message focused. In the case of Goliath I am focusing on his ability to get along with one of our other cats right now. As I have seen progress in that area, I have recently started working on his ability to get along with our other cat. If I were to say “Goliath gets along with other cats” the message is more diffuse and won’t have as quick an effect. Also, leave out conditional phrases with “if” in them. Waiting for a condition to occur before a change is made means it may never happen.
  • Keep your messages positive. It is always better to say “You are a good dog that knows what he should chew on” than it is to say “You are a good dog that will STOP chewing my furniture.” Generally we think in terms of things we don’t want our pets to do but it is important to turn the message around to the positive and focus on what we do want them to do, or even how we want them to be.
  • Keep your message in the present tense. If I were to say “SOMEDAY, Goliath will be brave and get along with Whirley…” it would never happen. As they say, tomorrow is always a day away, and someday is even further away. Some people may feel that it seems like lying, but that doesn’t matter. You have to focus on what you want as if it already exists, including in the behavior and well-being of your animals.
  • I add in a statement regarding “healthy” in my speech every time, such as “Big healthy Goliath.” There is simply no reason not to.

As a side note here, I always offer to people not to refer to their dog or cat as “bad.” In the heat of the moment it is difficult not to respond with “Bad dog!” when your pup has been destructive or misbehaves. But I believe it is important to remember that the action was bad, not the dog. Your dog is a good dog that did a bad thing. If you constantly refer to your dog or cat as a “bad dog” or “bad cat”, you will most assuredly end up with a bad dog or cat.

Again, positive speech can be useful as a supplemental therapy. I wouldn’t count on positive speech alone to fix any issue, behavioral or health related. Rather, view it as a supplement to other therapies and strategies that are already in use. For example, to help Goliath get along with his roommates, we use Phero-Soothe for Cats (there is also a dog version), Flower Essences and other environmental and behavioral strategies.

Why do dogs eat poop?

By Dave Goff

I have never worked in an office where everybody spent so much time talking about poop, and coming from a music industry background, that’s really saying something! One of the most common issues for canines is stool-eating, technically known as Coprophagia. There are several reasons why a dog may eat feces, and no one answer is necessarily correct. Basically it breaks down into two main categories; behavior and/or nutrition. Products like Stool Eating Deterrent can be very helpful in breaking this habit but should be considered just a part of an over-all strategy.

Starting with puppies, it isn’t uncommon for very young dogs to want to investigate and play with strong smelling objects in their environment and feces, both theirs and others, definitely fit the bill. This behavior should be curbed and opportunity should be reduced as much as possible. It is especially important to be vigilant in cleaning up after your pets when you have a puppy around. Often this behavior will fade away as the dog gets older but for some dogs it becomes a habit and then it can be extremely difficult to stop.

Some other behavioral possibilities include something as simple as maintaining their space. Dogs want to have clean space to play and live in as much as you do and their most obvious way to rid the environment of waste is by eating it. Some dogs can be pickier about this than others, so once again, constant vigilance is needed when you have a dog who eats stool. As always, the best defense is to remove the opportunity.

Stress can also be a factor. As above, when dogs are stressed about their environment or territory they may react in inappropriate ways. If your dog has just begun eating stool, take a moment to think if there have been any recent changes in your dog’s life. Has a new dog been added to the household? A new family member? Has their space been reduced or changed in a significant way? Perhaps it is time to incorporate some herbal calming or flower essences into your dog’s regimen.

If it isn’t behavioral, it can certainly be nutritionally based. Stool eating can be a sign of inadequate nutrition or nutrient absorption. If your dog is seeking out alternate sources of nutrition, then there might be some nutrient missing from your dog’s diet. Take a moment to read this article (What you should know about your pet’s food) and look at your dog’s food. Is it full of fillers and grains? Sometimes a food change is the best way to fix a stool-eating problem.

If your dog is getting a good food, perhaps it is time to add some digestive assistance. The old saying is “you are what you eat” but what it really should be is “you are what you manage to digest.” If it isn’t digested and absorbed, it is just leaving the body as nutrient-dense feces. To your dog this means it is still a viable food source even the second time around. Along those same lines, if your dog is eating the feces of other pets in the household, then their digestion should also be considered.

If the cat’s stool still smells like food to the dog, it only makes sense your dog will want to eat it. The better the digestion, the less the stool will smell like food because more of the real food will stay in the body.

Some dogs may eat stool because of a condition or a medication that increases appetite, like conditions of diabetes or thyroid disease, or medications like prednisone. If your dog is constantly hungry, available stool will definitely seem like a food source.

As a quick and simple summary, to complete a strategy that starts with Stool Eating Deterrent; remove the opportunity, lower the stress, feed good food and add digestive support. If you consider all of the issues in your strategy, your possibility of success increases dramatically!

Constipation in Pets

Okay, so pet poop is not a particularly pleasant topic, but a surprising number of pets have problems with constipation (abnormal accumulation of feces and difficulty defecating). More serious conditions can result from constipation, such as obstipation (complete obstruction of the colon by feces) and megacolon (damaged nerves and muscles in the colon causing an inability to defecate).

The colon, the last part of the intestinal tract, is a large muscular structure ending at the rectum. It contains most of the intestinal bacteria that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These bacteria finish up the digestion of protein. By-products of this process include short-chain fatty acids that nourish the cells lining the colon. Some of these lining cells absorb water, while others secrete mucus to lubricate the stool and keep it moving along.

Constipation is uncomfortable, even painful. Dogs may have accidents indoors. Cats may defecate (or try to) outside the litterbox, because they associate the discomfort with the box itself. Other signs of constipation include straining to defecate, irritability, painful abdomen, lethargy, and poor appetite or even loss of appetite.

Most pets defecate once or twice a day. Dogs have a strong reflex that triggers an urge to defecate after eating; cats are a little less motivated. A constipated animal may only defecate every 2 to 4 days, or even less. Usually the stools are hard and dry, because their long stay in the colon allows for absorption of most of their water content. However, occasionally a constipated pet can appear to have diarrhea, because liquid stool is the only thing that can get around the stuck mass of feces.

Causes for pooping problems include congenital abnormalities, neurologic problems, pelvic injury, obstruction (by hair, bones, etc.), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dogs typically become constipated secondary to another issue, such as injury or surgery. Small breed dogs appear to have more problems than larger breeds. In cats, the cause often remains unknown, but even a dirty litter box may cause avoidance; constipation results from holding the stool too long. Hooded litterboxes are a particular problem because they hold odor in, potentially making the box environment extremely unpleasant for the cat.

The initial treatment for constipation is usually a change in diet. Historically, pets have been put on high-fiber dry foods. Fiber modulates intestinal mobility. Depending on the type of fiber and the circumstances, fiber can either speed up or slow down digestion. It’s therefore used for both constipation and diarrhea. Light, senior, and hairball foods all contain increased fiber, and there are also several medical high-fiber diets.

Changing to a high-fiber diet often helps, at least initially. However, eventually these foods seem to lose their effectiveness over time. More fiber, such as canned pumpkin, may be added. Again, sometimes this produces a temporary improvement. Yet many animals, especially cats, continue to have problems.

Since fiber encourages water absorption and increases the amount of stool produced (because it is indigestible), many experts have swung the other way and are now recommending “low-residue” diets to minimize stool volume. “Low-residue” means that the food is highly digestible and produces minimal waste; fiber is typically low in these diets.

Dogs and cats are carnivores who digest protein and fat best, but there is controversy about carbohydrates; it is clear that many cats are carb-intolerant. Carbs contribute to obesity in both dogs and cats, and obesity is common factor in constipation. By this theory, the best food would be high fat, high protein, and low fiber, as well as high moisture. One would think that such a food would also be low fiber, but that is not necessarily true; always check the Guaranteed Analysis (available for each food on our website). Most canned foods fit this description, as do most raw and homemade diets. Dry diets are higher in fiber than canned, and can cause dehydration in cats, contributing to the problem.

Treatment for constipation depends on the severity of the problem. For mild cases, occasional enemas may be all they need. For severe blockages, the animal must be anesthetized for manual extraction of the feces (a process my vet tech graphically but accurately refers to as a “dig-out”). Water balance is also crucial in constipated animals, especially cats. Subcutaneous (or even intravenous) fluids may be needed to boost their hydration.

Once the animal is “cleaned out” by whatever means, you’ll definitely want to take steps to prevent the problem from recurring. Several options are available; some animals may need only one of these, while others need a combination of several of them.

Canned, raw, or homemade diet. High-moisture diets keep hydration normal, and these diets are far more digestible – and produce far less waste – than dry food.

Fiber. Because canned and homemade diets tend to be extremely low in fiber, addition of a small amount of ground flaxseed or powdered psyllium (available in bulk at most health food stores) may be needed for some animals. Flaxseed is an excellent choice because it also contains Omega-3 essential fatty acids, and its high content of lignans may help prevent some types of cancer.

o Missing Link Canine Formula

o Missing Link Feline Formula

Digestive enzymes and Probiotics. These products aid digestion and may help prevent constipation as well as other tummy issues. Products I like include:

o Vetri-Science Acetylator
o Animal Essentials Plant Enzymes & Probiotics
o Pet Naturals Digestive Support for Cats and Dogs

• Herbs. There are many herbal formulas available for people, but many of their ingredients are too harsh for pets. Safe herbal formulas for pets include

o Only Natural Pet GI Support
o Only Natural Pet Laxa-Herb Herbal Formula
o LoveMyPet Tummy Ease

• Lactulose. This is a syrup that holds water in the stool and keeps the stool soft; therefore it’s easier for the animal to pass. The taste, which is extremely sweet, can be an obstacle for some pets. Fortunately, lactulose now comes in a mild-tasting powder (Kristalose) that can be encapsulated by a compounding pharmacy, or simply added to canned food.

Other stool softeners, such as DSS (docusate sodium). Your veterinarian can prescribe these.

Petroleum jelly (e.g., Vaseline®). This is the primary ingredient in most over-the-counter hairball remedies (Laxatone, Kat-a-lax, Petromalt). Petroleum jelly can be given by mouth. Most pets tolerate it, many come to like it, and a few even relish it. Give 1/3 to 1/2 teaspoon per day for a cat or small dog, preferably separate from meals. It is completely harmless and inert in the body. (Vegetable oils do not have the same effect because they are digested and absorbed before reaching the colon.)

Cisapride (Propulsid). This drug was withdrawn from the market for humans because of dangerous side effects, but it is considered safe for pets. Your vet can order it from a compounding pharmacy. It seems to work best in combination with stool softeners.

Lubiprostone (Amitiza) was recently approved as a drug for humans. Your vet can advise you on whether it is safe and appropriate for your pet.

Note: Cisapride and Lubiprostone should not be used simultaneously)

• Pediatric glycerin suppositories. Although they may not appreciate having a suppository pushed into their rectums, most pets tolerate it. Your vet can advise you on technique and frequency.

• Enemas. Many pet guardians have (necessarily) gotten very good at giving enemas at home. Mineral oil, K-Y jelly (in a 1:1 ratio with warm water), soapy water, and just plain warm water are all fine; you may have to experiment to see which one works best for your particular pet.

• Fluids. Your veterinarian can show you how to give subcutaneous fluids at home if needed.

Slippery Elm. This powdered herb can be added to canned food (add extra cool water) or made into a syrup. Its mild taste is well tolerated by most pets.
• Exercise. Obesity is a risk factor for constipation. Staying active prevents weight gain, and helps stimulate the intestines and keep things moving. Brisk walks and fetching games are great for dogs. If your constipated cat is also a couch potato, you can introduce regular play sessions with an interactive fishing-pole type toy, like the Kitty Lure Caster or Swizzle.

• Stress Management. There is always an energetic or emotional component of any chronic disease, and stress plays a significant role in many gastrointestinal conditions. Flower essences can be very helpful.

• Surgery. If there is damage to the nerves and muscles of the colon, a “sub-total colectomy” is the last resort. This surgery removes the colon, and joins the small intestine to the rectum. Unless and until the small intestine develops more colon-like functioning, the result is chronic diarrhea. However, the animal will be much more comfortable.

If your pet is chronically constipated, the most important thing for you to do is be observant. Look for early signs of constipation; straining, abdominal discomfort, decreasing appetite, etc. Be aware of how often your pet is defecating. If he does not produce adequate stool for more than 2-3 days, call your vet, or begin home treatments if you have established this routine. Constipation is far easier to treat when it’s caught early. Later on, treatment will be far more expensive, and there is a greater chance of irreversible colon damage.

Probiotics for Dogs and Cats

Lately I’ve been running into a lot of pets who need some extra help with digestive and other health issues. Probiotics have helped solve the problems for many of these animals.

The term “probiotics” (which means “promoting life”) covers a variety of “friendly” bacteria that are beneficial for the digestive tract. These include Lactobacillus acidophilus and other Lactobacillus species, and certain strains of Bacillus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacteria, and Streptococcus, all of which are commonly found in over-the-counter probiotic supplements.

Probiotics are of special importance in pets with any type of digestive problem, including vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, and constipation. They are essential for animals who are, or have been, taking antibiotics; they can be given both during the course of antibiotics and for at least 2 weeks afterwards. Probiotics may help with allergies, including atopy (inhalant allergies), food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease. They have also been shown to be useful for cystitis (bladder inflammation) and dental disease in humans.

Probiotics promote a balanced and healthy bacterial population in the gut, which is important for complete digestion and general well-being. Intestinal bacteria aid in digesting certain nutrients by providing enzymes that the body does not make on its own. These organisms manufacture several B vitamins, and help maintain an acidic pH in the gut. They also prevent colonization of the digestive tract by pathological (disease-causing) organisms such as Salmonella or Campylobacter.

Probiotic bacteria are normally present in a healthy digestive tract, mainly in the colon. L. acidophilus, the strain most often used in fermented products like yogurt, was the first to be isolated and used as therapy, initially to treat constipation and diarrhea in human patients in the 1920s and 30s. In one study, human patients were given antibiotics to kill off most of their normal gut flora. After the antibiotic course was finished, they were then supplemented with L. acidophilus. Even more interesting, the levels of other normal bacteria, such as enterococci, also normalized rapidly. Further studies showed that the probiotics must be taken daily in order to maintain the beneficial effects.

From research on probiotics, it appears that the ideal probiotic for any individual would match the species normally found in the intestine of the particular animal (dog, cat, etc.). However, this is not practical for our pets. In practice, supplementing with any good quality probiotic produces positive results. Don’t count on pet food alone, no matter how good it is; tests show that pet foods claiming probiotics on the label don’t usually have any live organisms.

A very interesting study done in cats with kidney disease found significant improvement in blood values for BUN and creatinine (common measurements of kidney function) when probiotics were given. Cats received 1/2 to 1 capsule per day of a commercial probiotic product mixed with their wet food. The cats also clearly felt better and had more energy. This approach is very promising for cats and dogs with chronic kidney disease, including those pets whose kidneys were damaged after eating recalled pet food.

It’s easy to add probiotics to your pet’s diet. While many owners and breeders recommend adding a tablespoon of yogurt to the food, this is not enough to have much effect. Most yogurt made commercially with live cultures contain only low levels. It is better and simpler (and definitely more cost-effective) to buy probiotics in capsules and add them to the food. These supplements must be fresh, and most of them need to be kept refrigerated to keep the organisms viable. It’s okay to probiotics made for humans, and safe at the human dose even in small pets. Fortunately these supplements generally have little taste and are readily accepted by most pets if mixed with wet food.

Even if you’re feeding the best commercial food, or even a homemade diet, probiotics are needed for digestive and immune system health. Here at Only Natural, we carry several products that contain probiotics; some of my favorites are:

Only Natural Pet Probiotic Blend

Ark Naturals Gentle Digest

NF Spectra Probiotic